Two groups of facilities are currently used for research and teaching at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve: a headquarters complex at the south edge of the reserve, and a small residential complex about three km northeast of Headquarters, in the reserve interior.
The headquarters complex consists of several buildings, including a headquarters building that is more than sixty years old and in substandard condition. In 1997, campus health and safety experts recommended replacement of the headquarters building. It currently functions as housing for visiting researchers in three small bedrooms. A garage and shop facility is associated with the headquarters complex. The small residential complex, known as Fox Creek Lodge, consists of 5 separate bunkhouse cabins (4-6 bed platforms each, but only one of these large enough for an adult), a dining hall/kitchen, and bathroom. This complex serves as group housing for up to 30 people, and is used as a dormitory for visiting students during the spring and fall semesters, and as housing for researchers in the summer. The bunkhouses contain beds and lockers, and some of the structures require upgrading. Finally, there is a small three-bedroom structure known as the Wilderness Lodge. As a result of recent renovations, this structure is in good structural condition, and is occupied by visiting researchers throughout the year.
Two other areas with structures are located on the grounds of the reserve: the Angelo Homesite, an area retained as an inholding by the Angelo family and currently occupied by the Resident Manager, Peter Steel, a descendant of the Angelo’s, and his family; and the White House, an unoccupied building that is listed on the Federal Register of Historic Places.
All structures in the Reserve are managed in a manner that minimizes environmental impacts. Only the headquarters complex is linked to the county electrical grid; all other occupied buildings are powered by solar energy and propane.
In 1997, as part of an initial strategic planning process for the Reserve, the Berkeley campus and the Natural Reserve System determined that the Angelo Coast Range Reserve could better meet its research and teaching potential with improved facilities. Specifically, it was concluded that the following facility-related issues should be addressed: a) the replacement of headquarters and associated outbuildings used for storage; b) the construction of adequate housing for researchers; c) the construction of a small lab with basic scientific equipment and meeting space; d) the construction of a lathe house to support a variety of open air experiments; e) and, to facilitate research of riverine ecosystems and tree canopy biology, the construction of aquatic sampling and tree canopy platforms. With some or all of these issues resolved, the minimal framework for conducting comprehensive research and teaching would be in place, and public outreach activities would be enhanced.
In 1998, the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, with the assistance of the NRS, applied for and gratefully received approximately $1.2 million dollars from the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund to build a “Center for Environmental Science.” Construction of the Environmental Science Center with a meeting room, simple laboratories, computer and collection rooms, an office, and a screened lathe house was completed in summer 2002. The structure addresses the need for lab, computer, and meeting space at the Reserve. On-site administrative activities and collections have moved from the headquarters to the new Center, and classes and research teams can be accommodated. (See Building Use Policy). In addition to lab and meeting spaces, a rudimentary canopy access facility was constructed along a river-to-ridge elevational gradient in the reserve.
The importance of the site to University of California researchers and students is evidenced by the number of people who have carried out environmental research here since the 1980s. (Appendix 10). At the Angelo Reserve, researchers have had the opportunity to study impacts of perturbations as they occurred one at a time, such as effects of invading invading exotic bullfrogs on native frogs and other river biota (Kupferberg 1996,1997a, 1997b), and of invading pigs on meadow flora (Kotanen 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1997b), of impacts of drought (and consequently artificial flow regulation) on river food webs supporting salmonids (Power, Parker and Wootton 1996, Power 1992, Wootton et al. 1996, Parker and Power 1995), of excessive fine sediment loading on rearing salmonids (Suttle et al. submitted, Power et al. 2002), and of potential climate change on native and exotic meadow flora and fauna (Suttle in preparation).
Since the 1980s, field research has been conducted at the Angelo Reserve by faculty and students from a number of institutions, including U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Davis, Humboldt State University, the University of Chicago, Sonoma State University, and the University of Utah, Logan. A number of agency researchers have monitored the Angelo Reserve to check on the status of endangered species (spotted owls, marbeled murrelets) Field scientists from the USGS have sampled bacteria and physico-chemical properties of Elder Creek to establish baseline standards of purity for natural waters
Areas investigated by researchers at the Angelo reserve from 1986-2002 include:
Angelo Reserve has long served as a venue for field courses, and for graduate
training in field research. Even before the reserve was
first protected by the Nature Conservancy in 1959 environmental education
took place at 'Camp Adventure'. Camp Adventure was established by three
Bay Area men with strong ties to the YMCA. They purchased the White House
and Wilderness Lodge properties in the early 50's for their own enjoyment
but also to serve as a site for periodic summer camp for YMCA camp counselors-in-training.
The Camp Adventure properties were added to the Preserve in 1961.
Even before the reserve was first protected by the Nature Conservancy in 1959 environmental education took place at 'Camp Adventure'. Camp Adventure was established by three Bay Area men with strong ties to the YMCA. They purchased the White House and Wilderness Lodge properties in the early 50's for their own enjoyment but also to serve as a site for periodic summer camp for YMCA camp counselors-in-training. The Camp Adventure properties were added to the Preserve in 1961.
Environmental education was fairly informal and episodic during the first
15 years of the Nature Conservancie's tenure on the reserve, consisting
of occasional field trips by local schools and short informal summer camp
for Bay Area youth. The level of these activities fluctuated with the
whims and interests of local teachers and preserve managers, and others
who had ties to The Nature Conservancy in the Bay Area. Beginning around
1976 a more formal environmental education program was developed by student
interns from UC Davis and Hayward State University with support from The
Nature Conservancy, and regular spring use by local 6th grade classes
became the norm for the next 12 or so years. During this period as many
as 300 students would visit the Preserve during the spring season for
three day stays. With their teachers and parent chaperones, and often
an intern from Hayward State, the students participated in environmental
activities exposing them to concepts in hydrology, aquatic ecology, botany,
general ecology, and others.
Since 2003 the Angelo Reserve has been involved with the 'Exploring California Biodiversity' project run by the UC Berkeley Natural History Museums and funded by the National Science Foundation. The primary goal of the project is to inspire in urban children an appreciation for the overwhelming diversity of life. Graduate fellows associated with UC Berkeley Natural History Museums work with middle and high schools in the San Francisco Bay Area using the facilities and resources of the Berkeley Natural History Museums and the Berkeley Natural History Field Stations, including the Angelo Reserve. The program involves field trips, the building and studying of natural history collections in the K-12 schools, additional study of BNHM collections, and the use of interpretive tools. In addition to working with schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, in 2006,graduate Fellow, Ryan Hill began working with teachers in the local school district in order to introduce their students to the biodiversity at the Angelo Reserve.
The Angelo Coast Range Reserve, originally protected by Heath and Margorie Angelo in concert with The Nature Conservancy and the Bureau of Land Management continues to benefit from partnerships and long-standing agreements with other individuals and organizations. The Nature Conservancy monitors the Angelo Reserve annually to ensure that terms of the conservation easement, under which it conferred fee title to the University of California, are being fulfilled. The U.C. Natural Reserve System and the University of California Berkeley campus co-finance the reserve, with an annual budget of ca. $55,000 to cover the salary of the reserve steward, along with facility support and maintenance costs. Environmental monitoring stations have been purchased and installed with funding from individual research grants from the National Science Foundation. Hardware for satellite connectivity for highspeed computer links has been recently provided by funds from the John and Mary Gompertz Chair to Professor Power in Integrative Biology at UCB, and monthly fees are covered by the National Center for Earth Surface Dynamics (NCED), a new NSF Science and Technology Center based at the University of Minnesota. The Angelo family has provided a gift for the restoration and upkeep of the Angelo homestead, and friends and neighbors have demonstrated support for the reserve by granting temporary access to their lands for research purposes that they have approved
The Angelo Reserve has a positive presence in the Branscomb Laytonville
Willits community because of the open access for the public to hiking
in the reserve. Members of the public are restricted to day hikes, with no pets,
motorized vehicles, or overnight stays.
An informal friends association, The Horseshoe Bend Foundation,
was established by members of the Angelo-Steel families and Sharon Johnson,
one of the original TNC stewards at the reserve in the early 1980’s Recent discussions among Sharon Johnson, Peter
Steel, Dean Edell, and Mary Power have covered the possibility of reviving
this group, with an eye towards fund raising for acquisition funds (several
opportunities to buy adjacent lands affecting the reserve have arisen
over the years); restoration of the historical white house, scholarships
for student researchers, and other possible programs.
All users - General Reserve Use policy
The Angelo Reserve is available to any qualified student, teacher, or researcher whose use has been approved by the Reserve Manager, in consultation with the Faculty Manager. A basic application (give print out-able form on web address) must be completed to access and use the Reserve. Based on NRS guidelines, there are three sets of applications: Group/Class Use; Research Use; and Public Access. All proposed research is reviewed by the Reserve Manager and the Reserve Faculty Director prior to arrival. Initial inquiries about research should be sent to the Reserve Manager:
A class or group application requests basic information about the visit, as well as a brief statement concerning the purpose of the visit. A research application requests information concerning the nature of the research, and questions about animal use and collecting permits. Projects and other activities will be carefully evaluated for their scientific or educational merit, and, importantly, for their impact on the natural resources and values of the Reserve. A guiding principle for the Angelo Reserve and other UC Natural Reserves is that present use should not compromise the ability of future investigators to learn about past or present processes in the natural ecosystems represented at the site. A rule of thumb for the Angelo Reserve is that if major legacies of a proposed use are predicted to last more than a few years past the termination of the activity, it will not be approved unless the scientific opportunity to learn about the ecosystem is truly unique and extraordinary. The evaluation of use impact will take into account both the nature and intensity of the manipulation or activity, and the resiliency of the areas to be used. For example, holes from sediment excavation in the river channel will disappear during scouring winter floods during most winters. Sediment excavation on steep hillslopes, on the other hand, could oversteepen banks, leading to long term erosion and inputs of damaging fine sediment into the river channel. Figure 3 (Figure under preparation) shows a map of the Angelo Reserve with zones indicating habitats that are known or hypothesized to be fragile or resilient to impacts that involve trampling, soil disturbance, or manipulation of vegetation.
For projects and activities that are approved
based on their merit and potential impact, approval will be based on a
first come, first served basis, subject to the following prioritization:
User-days at particular habitats will be limited to the numbers indicated on figure 3 (under preparation), to avoid long-term degradation of fragile biota and environments.
All Users (but especially researchers) - State, Federal and UC policies regulating reserve useResearch and other uses of the Angelo reserve are regulated by a variety of policies and guidelines (Federal, State, UC, NRS, UCB) that are summarized in Table X and included in full as appendices X-X. For certain policies (indicated with *) permits and approval should be obtained prior to arrival at the field station.
Table 1 – UC, State and Federal policies and guidelines affecting use of the Angelo Reserve
Full compliance with appropriate policies is required for all use of the Angelo reserve. Copies of approved UC Berkeley animal protocols and fishing permits must be given to the Reserve Manager upon arrival and before commencing work.
All Users: Health and Safety Procedures and Policie
All users of the reserve are responsible for complying with environmental health and safety regulations (from http://www.ehs.berkeley.edu/policy/responsib/individs.html)
Table 2: Sources of information for natural hazards at the Angelo reserve
All Users: Emergency response plan
Fire: If users are caught inside the Reserve in a wildfire, vehicular egress out of Wilderness Lodge Road is likely to be blocked by fallen trees. Users should try to get into a cooled burned area, or take temporary shelter where the vegetation is sparse (reserve meadows, very wide gravel bars along the river). Look for a depression in the ground and clear as much vegetation and flammable "ground litter" as you can. Then lie face down in the depression and cover yourself with anything that will shield you from the heat. Avoid natural chimneys and topographic saddles. A natural chimney is a narrow, steep canyon that concentrates heat and updraft (e.g. much of the canyon bound river corridor). Saddles between hills are wide natural paths for fire, winds, and vegetation; fires tend to be drawn up and over these depressions with great speed and intensity. Temperatures from a fire racing through these natural conditions can exceed several thousand degrees Fahrenheit and quickly use precious oxygen.
If you're in a vehicle, move it to bare ground or a sparsely vegetated
area, close all windows and doors, lie on the floor, and cover yourself
with a jacket or blanket. Keep calm, stay in the vehicle, and let the
fire pass. If there is time, users near the Wilderness Lodge Meadow could
build backfires to reduce fuel around them, then wait the fire out under
wet blankets. When the wireless infrastructure is in place, we will have
telphone and radio links with which to guide helicopter rescues.
The following policies and rules apply to all users:
In addition to the policies and rules above, research users should also follow the following rules:
Detailed policy statements for the following areas are currently under development (for more information, see Appendices 8 and 9):
Endangered and exotic species and genotypes.
The Angelo Reserve, like all ecosystems in California, is altered by invasions of non-native plants (e.g. star thistle, European grasses), invertebrates (Argentine ants, honeybees), and vertebrates (e.g., bullfrogs, pigs, turkeys). Some of these invasives do considerable damage to native biota and ecosystem processes. Deliberate introduction of exotic species is prohibited, and activities oriented towards reduction or control of established exotics on the reserve are encouraged (but treatment of vertebrates is subject to ACUC protocols for humane procedures).
A policy is under discussion regarding reasonable measures that will reduce the likelihood of the introduction of Phytophthora spp., the microbe responsible for Sudden Oak Death, into the reserve. The Angelo Reserve is particularly vulnerable to this invasion because of the density and dominance of tannoaks (Lithocarpus densiflora) in reserve mixed deciduous forests. We now request that researchers coming to the Angelo Reserve from areas known to be infected wash mud from their boots and field equipment, and use commercial car washes (several are available in Fort Bragg or Willits) before introducing SOD spores to the reserve.
An increasingly worrisome and more cryptic threat to the ability of future biologists to decipher distributional patterns and adaptations of organisms arises when non-local genotypes of taxa native to reserves are introduced. We follow the UCNRS guidelines (http://nrs.ucop.edu/staff/nonnatives.html) regulating the introduction of non-native genotypes to reserves.
If projects involving non-native genotypes are approved at the Angelo Reserve due to extraordinary scientific merit, we urge the responsible researchers to make every possible effort to prevent the spread of non-local propagules outside the spatial and temporal domain of their experiments.
Information Management and Database Policy
Data management to build an information infrastructure is now a top priority for Angelo and other field research reserves. Information infrastructure is arguably more important to a field research reserve than its “bricks and mortar” facilities. A well curated data base enables researchers to build on the work and context of others, and alerts them to cases in which their findings may be influenced by previous land use or experimental manipulations. Increasingly, we recognize the importance of historical context in documenting environmental and biotic trends and events. In collaboration with the newly organized spatial informatics groups at the Berkeley Natural History Museum (John Deck, Craig Moritz, Collin Bode, MVZ web sites?), and at the UCNRS (Kevin Brown, Cyndi Luc? Mike Hamilton, Dan Dawson web sites, emails), we intend to capture, archive, and disseminate the data and information generated by researchers about the Angelo Reserve. To help us in this endeavor, we require generated by researchers about the Angelo ReserveTo help us with this endeavor, we require that researchers:
Table 3 summarizes the various research policies specific to the Angelo reserve that are not included in Table 1 or are supplemental to this information
Table 3 – Research policies at the Angelo ReservEducational activity users
Facilities at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve are periodically used for courses sponsored by academic departments in the UC system. Courses can be taught during all four seasons, weather permitting. Use of site is scheduled on a space available basis.
It is strongly suggested that group leaders sign up well in advance (e.g. 6-12 months). Contact Peter Steel (contact information above) for application forms, or these can be printed from the web (under preparation - will link to web address) and mailed. Risk forms must be reviewed and completed. Groups with minors need to make arrangements several weeks in advance to ensure forms can be forwarded to and completed by the responsible parties. Please contact Reserve Manager for more information.Community outreach users
Subject to restrictions depending on user-day zoning guidelines, and potential interference with research projects.